SA-1000™

The Next Generation Treatment for Sodium & Heavy Metals in Soil and Wastewater

Tidwell Industries is proud to introduce a revolutionary shift in the management and remediation of high sodium and metal contaminated soils and wastewater streams. SA-1000™ is the newest treatment that combines two, next generation, organic biopolymers. This uniquely blended product possesses the following properties and functions; optimal molecular mass, active functional groups, hydrophilic and hydrophobic sites, positively and negatively charged sites, non-ionic sites, and specific interactions between molecules themselves and organic/mineral compounds. The combination of these diverse properties and functions provide a product that utilizes multiple functions and mechanisms to detoxify, neutralize, bind, and convert a myriad of toxic metals to benign residual metals.

SA-1000™ is a convenient, cost-effective, liquid treatment product derived from and naturally occurring organic substrate. Our proprietary and patented manufacturing process unleash unparalleled performance that addresses most of the potential effects that excess sodium and heavy metals will have in all soil and wastewater applications.

Product Benefits:

  • SA-1000™ adsorbs and coordinates sodium cations and chlorine anions which allow excessive amounts of salt to become more mobile in terms of sodium cations and chloride anions that have a natural ability to flush through the soil or precipitate out of water. Any sodium residue creates a new mineral formation resulting in sodium, chlorine, cation and anion conversion into physically and mechanically bound status, thus eliminating salt toxicity resulting in desalination and salt toxicity reduction/ elimination.
  • SA-1000™ will naturally stimulate toxic organic and mineral pollutants decomposition into neutral compounds such as converting Chromium VI to Chromium III.
  • SA-1000™, with an abundance of hydroxyl and phenolic groups, provides these functional groups that are key to the metal complexation resulting in the binding of various metals.
  • SA-1000™ is immediately soluble and active compared to gypsum applications. See results within a couple of weeks.
  • In soil, SA-1000™ creates fresh soil organic matter that results in increased CEC, better water holding capacity, and soil porosity/structure that results in healthy, active soil for re-use.
  • SA-1000™ is a chemically, biologically and geologically active material.
  • Cost effective low dose rates for either injection or mechanical applications.

For additional information and specific application rates for your project, contact an authorized Tidwell representative.

SA-1000 - Performance Case Study

The remediation and management of waste tailings from the metals refinery industry is a growing challenge with increased regulations towards heavy metals, salts, and other related contaminants. In an effort to demonstrate the real world performance of SA-1000 and the direct impact it has on metals and salts, Tidwell Industries received a sample of stainless steel slag directly from a refinery to treat.

The slag sample was crushed and screened to a homogenous material with all large clumps removed. An equal amount of processed slag was added to two clean plastic dishes. One dish was treated with SA-1000 (Right Photo Below), wheat seeds were added to each dish and mixed into the slag, and each dish watered. Each dish received equal amounts of water daily to aid in normal seed germination for five days.

The photo below shows plant germination after 5 days. After 10 days, the treated sample continued to grow while the untreated dish with limited initial germination all died. The trial was abandoned after 30 days with the treated sample plants remained healthy for the entire time.

This study has demonstrated the performance of SA-1000 and its ability to reduce/eliminate salt and metals toxicity while providing a valuable organic structure which will sustain growth. Additionally, this study has laid the foundation for a large scale pilot study for the treatment of refinery tailings. The new pilot study will include pre and post material metals and sodium testing and replicate the ability of the tailings to support various plants from seed.

Things That Impact Product Performance

 

  • Soil Structure
  • Total Contaminant Loading
  • Moisture
  • Application Process
  • Rate of Application Versus Results Required
  • Additional Chemical Treatments
  • Expectations or Regulatory Requirements
  • Testing Methods

Case Study

  • Location: Western Oklahoma – Disposal Station
  • Contaminant: Produced Water (Brine)
  • Impact Area: Medium Spill Area

  • Location: Central Oklahoma –Storage Tank Leak
  • Contaminant: Produced Water (Brine)
  • Impact Area: 1.58 acres by 18” deep

  • Location: Western Oklahoma – Disposal Station
  • Contaminant: Produced Water (Brine)
  • Impact Area: Small Spill Area

Reversing The Effects of Sodium & Bicarbonates

This is the result of years of effluent water use and the effects it has on traditional sand based greens.

SA-1000™

Salts and Chlorides Remediation

The remediation of salts and chlorides is not a process of consumption but rather a process of binding, buffering, immobilization, detoxification, filtering, or conversion into a non-toxic soil mineral. This is accomplished in a variety of both cationic and anionic processes and reactions. The following information will provide some additional information that will assist in how some of these processes occur and a foundation on what these potential contaminants do in soil. Impact of Salt/Chloride on Soil There are three major impacts on soil and plants when saltwater spills occur.
  • Soil particles are dispersed which destroys aggregation
  • Osmotic potential reduces the plants' ability to uptake water
  • Ionic balance of the soil solution is impacted reducing nutrient absorption

Impact of sodium on soil and plants.

The Na+ ion of sodium chloride causes the dispersion of the soil. Due to a large number of Na+ ions available, the Na+ ions are able to exchange with a sufficient number of the Ca++ and Mg++ ions. The Na+ ion is a large ion, therefore, weakening the normal soil aggregate stability. The major impact of a saltwater spill is the destruction of the soil aggregates by dispersion. Dispersion will occur when more than 15% of the cation exchange capacity sites on clays are occupied by sodium ions and when the total EC in the soil solution is low. The potential dispersion of soil can be determined by the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP).

Soil dispersion results in:

  • Loss of soil structure
  • Loss of pore structure
  • Reduced air and water movement
  • Reduced bioactivity
  •  Reduced nutrient transfer
  • Increased water run-off and erosion of soil

Due to the major impact of the Na+ ion in the soil root zone, the remediation process is focused on restoring the soil aggregation. When the soil aggregation is restored the secondary impact due to osmotic pressure will also be reduced.

In the remediation process, it is very important to treat the soil as soon as possible. Rain on the spill site before gypsum is added will increase the rate of soil dispersion.

As the salt (NaCl) concentration in the water solution increases, the change in osmotic potential makes the roots work harder to take in water. The amount of water intake by a plant will directly affect plant growth. As rainfall events occur salt in the water solution will be diluted. In most cases, the first year rainfall (12-14 inches of rain) will significantly reduce the salt concentration in the soil solution.

Impact of chloride on soil and plants.

Depending on the chloride concentration in the spill event, direct chloride toxicity can occur at high levels of Cl- ions. Sensitivity to the Cl– ion will depend on the plant species. The Cl– ion in the soil water solution is usually flushed below the root zone by the first year of rainfall.

The Cl– ion, due to its negative charge, moves rapidly out of the root zone through the negatively charged soil aggregates. Chloride concentration does not have a direct impact on soil structure except for being one of the ions which increases the osmotic potential in the soil solution.

The term “chloride” does not refer to any specific compound but is a category of substances that are either present in the soil or groundwater or are added to drilling muds or hydro-fracturing fluids to facilitate the development of a gas/oil well. The most common chlorides of interest include sodium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride, potassium chloride, and barium chloride. Therefore the remediation of “Chlorides” may encompass a variety of compounds that can respond differently to treatments due to a variety of variables and conditions. It is also known that within any remediation of salts and chlorides that a variety of charges and reactions are required due to the fact that Cations migrate to negative charges and anions migrate to positive charges. Therefore, multiple charges of treatment products will be required to react appropriately with the different charges of the various components in the soil and water.

Proper Site Characterization and Analytical Data for Maximum Performance Results:

Basic sodium and chloride testing will ONLY provide one small piece of the puzzle………what is the level of loading! Understanding the makeup and use of the site, soil structure, and analytics that detail the impact of the sodium/chloride to the specific site are all critical to the development of an effective remediation process that can yield maximum results in the shortest period of time. Without a complete site picture, the remediation process will, in most cases, will not perform to the required expectations resulting in retreatment, additional time, and additional expense that can be avoided with proper testing and investigation of the site.

Required site testing: (the best method for overall site analysis is composite soil sampling)

  • pH
  • Bicarbonate Alkalinity
  • Carbonate Alkalinity
  • Electrical Conductivity (EC)
  • Total Soluble Salts (TSS)
  • Calcium
  • Potassium
  • Magnesium
  • Sodium
  • Chloride (Anions)
  • Nitrate as N (Anions)
  • Sulfate as SO4 (Anions)
  • Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)
  • Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP)
  • Sodium Absorption Ration (SAR)
  • Soil Texture Analysis (Sand, Silt, Clay)

Required site-specific information:

  • General topography of the site
  • Site accessibility
  • Principal site use (Pasture, Agricultural, Stabilization)
  • Regulatory Standard
  • Surface/Groundwater impact or influence (location of creeks, rivers, ponds, and depth to groundwater if known)
  • Age/Volume of Spill
  • The makeup of the water spilled (Produced Water, Frack Water, Hydrocarbon present, Metals, other potential remediation concerns presented by the spill, MAY REQUIRE ADDITIONAL TESTING DATA)
  • Depth of contamination (Soil Texture Testing at incremental depths may be required)
  • Depth to groundwater, type & potential water uses

Frequent work within a general geographic area may limit the amount of information required for all sites through experience though it is not uncommon for soil structure to vary significantly from location to location. Due to the relatively low cost for all tests, establishing a consistent testing regime will ensure consistent results and a portfolio of proven reference data for replicable results and success.

SA-1000 Technical Mechanisms (Salts/Chlorides)

The bio-polymers that makeup SA-1000 are chemically, biologically and geologically active material. In other terms, PEB is a nonspecific material that provides a positive impact to many, if not all, soil compounds (organic and mineral matter, soil bacteria, plant, etc.); organic pollutant (oil hydrocarbon and others); mineral toxicant (heavy metals, salts, etc.); soil function and properties (water holding capacity, porosity and density, CEC, EC, etc.) as well as plant growth / development processes. These are caused by PEB which is a poly fractional organic-mineral composition and colloidal origin (PEB contains molecules with different molecular mass); biopolymer or polyelectrolyte nature (PEB molecules are biologically synthesized molecules – biopolymer, while at the same time these polymers - molecules are electrolyte – or rather a polyelectrolyte); volumetric structure (three dimensional molecules with ability to conformational changes – ability to change their shapes) , its functional groups and a number of local positively and negatively charged active centers – negatively charged centers located primarily on the outer/external edges and positively charged centers located primarily in the inner/internal sites of these molecules. This unique molecular structure allows SA-1000 to be effective on both sodium cations and chloride anions.

It is well known that soil particles bear negative electrical charges and this results in cations (positively charged ions) absorption on their surfaces.

Note: Soil particles form a soil “skeleton” that means they are not available for moving through the soil profile (in most cases). These cations form a thin or thick hydrated layer around each soil particle. This electrically charged layer is called a “Double Electrical Layer”. This property primarily causes soil Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC). There is primarily hydrogen, calcium, magnesium, sodium; potassium and some other cations are present in this layer. Depending on the makeup of the soil, the type of cations that dominates various soils could vary significantly. According to modern agrochemistry, the best cation is calcium. If sodium cations dominate in this layer and the layer is thick, the sodium cations can move into soil pore solution due to diffusion, in this case, the soil gets toxic for plant and soil bacteria (due to several mechanisms including high osmotic pressure). However, most sodium cations are strongly bound with soil particles and even soil washing with plenty of water does not remove any significant amount of sodium. That is why sodium removal is possible through ions exchange mechanisms: usually, calcium (calcium sulfate – bio-available calcium) is used to replace sodium by calcium and sodium is available for removal from the soil due to rainfall, natural diffusion processes, etc. If the soil has high CEC (for example, black soil; clay; clay loam), soil can accumulate high levels of sodium without detectable sodium toxicity to plants because sodium cations are strongly bound and sit in “double electric layer”. Soil with low CEC cannot absorb high levels of sodium that is why in “light” soil (sandy soil; sandy clay; etc.) even a small amount of sodium results in great toxicity for plant/soil bacteria. Tidwell PEB’s increase CEC because activated bio-polymers have many active functional groups which have increased ions exchange capacity. The greater the CEC, the greater the amount of sodium is absorbed and the lower its toxicity. Our PEB is the real molecular solution with a dominated mass around 27,000 Daltons up to 100,000 Daltons. Therefore, with a sodium cation mass being 23 D (chlorine ion 36 D) a single PEB molecule is greater/heavier than a sodium ion by 1,174 times. The greater/heavier the molecules, the less mobile they are. Once sodium ions are absorbed by the PEB molecule, it makes sodium ions less mobile and respectively less toxic. It is possible to say roughly, that each PEB molecule works like a soil “particle” which forms a “Double electrical layer” with sodium resulting in reduced sodium mobility/toxicity.

Our PEB molecules are volumetric: meaning three dimensions. Sodium ions can travel inside volumetric molecules and interact with their negatively charged sites. This can be described in terms of “sodium coordination”.

Note: It can be explained in very simple terms. - For example, the Moon is coordinated by the Earth (due to gravity) and this doesn’t allow the Moon to travel freely. But if the Moon gets extra energy, it can leave the Earth because there are no other forces or bonds which keep them together.

In the soil or wastewater, PEB molecules absorb and coordinate sodium cations on negatively charged external surfaces and chlorides anions on the positively charged centers. Due to “diffusion” by water, chlorides ions have a significantly greater concentration on the inside portion of the molecule, while the sodium ions are captured in greater concentration on the outside of the PEB molecules rather than in the surrounding water. In soil, this results in lowering sodium and chlorides concentration in soil pore solution and greater concentration around the solid phase. The lower sodium and chlorides content in soil pore solution, the less salt toxicity to the plants. Though this process of absorption and coordination still binds sodium and chlorides ions, they still remain mobile and soluble without the inhibiting effects to the soil, water, and the environment trying to survive in it.

Note: PEB molecules interaction with calcium, magnesium and two others with greater valent cations resulting in PEB molecules coagulation and precipitation. Calcium, magnesium, etc. make conformational changes or in other terms change PEB molecules shapes to more spherical which include sodium and chloride inside such spheres. This is the sodium and chlorides occlusion that results in less mobility/toxicity of these ions.

When frack/production water or drilling muds are accidentally released onto healthy soils, the results on vegetation are immediate, with devastating results. The impact of the sodium increases compaction through interactions with clay particles, reduces the ability for moisture to naturally penetrate the soils, dramatically increases Electrical Conductivity (EC), and limits natural nutrient conversion and availability to plants resulting in certain death.

Treatment of soils with SA-1000 creates fresh soil organic matter that results in healthy, active soil for re-use. SA-1000 will increase CEC while reducing electrical conductivity, improve water holding capacity by reducing the osmotic pressure, and soil porosity/structure by releasing the sodium for the clay and reversing the charge of the clay particles forcing them apart. SA-1000 helps safely regenerate soil affected by salts/chlorides/metals and promotes improved soil structure for healthy, productive use of the site.

Solid phase formation in soil or sediment formation in wastewater due to PEB coagulation by calcium, magnesium, etc. significantly changes the mechanisms of sodium and chlorides diffusion in solid-liquid media. Sodium and chlorides distribution between the liquid phase (water) and solid phase (coagulated PEB in soil and sediment in wastewater) results in greater sodium and chlorides content in the solid phase. This difference can be detected by sodium and chlorides content determination in the liquid phase before and after PEB application. Liquid phase electroconductivity can be read also before and after PEB application. Electroconductivity reduction is more than expected.

Note: without solid phase or sediment formation a PEB application could result in electroconductivity increase due to its electrolytic nature. Sodium and chlorides diffusion in solid phase and sediment is still great because they are not strongly bound; they are just absorbed and coordinated. This diffusion allows sodium and chlorides leaving the topsoil into deeper layers. This results in topsoil desalination. If this sediment in wastewater is located on the surface of the native ground (loam, sandy loam, etc.) it can result in sodium and chlorides diffusion to deeper layers and salt content reduction in wastewater.

Note: PEB molecules which were coagulated to sediment are not mobile. They can catch sodium in the same manner as it does cationic resins in case of sodium prevalent content over calcium, magnesium, etc. In this case, sodium replaces calcium, magnesium, etc. and calcium chloride, magnesium chlorides content can increase while lowering sodium chloride concentration in water.

As previously stated, PEB is a biologically active product which catalyzes the processes of new soil organic matter formation due to fresh organic matter and organic residue humification into colloidal PEB and primarily to Humus. Freshly formed colloidal PEB is negatively charged in wet soil having a high CEC that results in sodium ions absorption and protons H+ release. Protons replace sodium and form H+ Cl-. So, original NaCl turns to H+ Cl-. Protons and chlorides are very mobile which results in rapid filtering and movement from the soil top layer. Freshly formed colloidal PEB can absorb and keep protons and chlorides “mechanically” bound thus reducing or eliminating chlorides toxicity.

Note: PEB also acts as a biologically active product in soil. First of all, PEB stimulates autotroph group of bacteria which use mineral compounds such as ammonia/ammonium; sulfur; iron, etc. as an energy source. This group of bacteria can utilize carbon dioxide as a carbon source. But carbon dioxide is a gas and not available for this bacteria. Carbon dioxide dissolution in soil pore solution or wastewater results in bicarbonate formation. Bicarbonate in soil or wastewater is rapidly available for autotroph and they turn bicarbonate into bacterial organic matter. If soil is contaminated, for example by sodium bicarbonates, bicarbonates consumption by bacteria results in free sodium ions release and their absorption by soil negatively charged particles – CEC or leaching from the soil in form of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). So, PEB is most effective for soil which is contaminated by bicarbonates – sodium bicarbonate, magnesium bicarbonate, etc.

PEB acts as an effective bio stimulator for plant and soil native microbiology. PEB can be applied by mixing into the soil or as a foliar spray. PEB molecules regulate soil and plant’s cells osmotic pressure. It is known, that the higher the salt content in water, the greater the osmosis pressure and the greater the salt toxicity will be to the plants. High osmosis pressure makes water unavailable for plant resulting in their drying and death. PEB molecules reduce osmosis pressure making water available for the plant.

As we also stated, PEB is geologically active product. It means that PEB catalyzes the process of new soil mineral formation acting as a “matrix” which collects dissolved cations (primarily magnesium, calcium) and anions (primarily hydroxyl groups, silicates) into new clayey minerals. Sodium and chlorides are “mechanically” occluded between mineral’s crystals and lose their mobility and toxicity to plants. These processes in soil a reasonable period of time and result are detectable in several weeks: sodium and chlorides reduction while soil clay mineral content may increase.

FAQ

Tidwell Industies SA-1000 is a new management tool for remediation of high sodium and metal contaminated soils and wastewater streams. SA-1000 is an advanced treatment product combing two, next generation, Polyelectrolyte Enhanced Organic Bio-Polymers (PEB) with bio-available calcium.

This uniquely blended product possesses the following properties and functions; optimal molecular mass, active functional groups, hydrophilic and hydrophobic sites, positively and negatively charged sites, non-ionic sites, and specific interactions between molecules themselves and organic/mineral compounds. The combination of these diverse properties and functions provide a product that utilizes multiple functions and mechanisms to detoxify, neutralize and bind, salts and chlorides with the added ability to convert a myriad of toxic metals to benign residual metals.

The foundation of SA-1000 is an advanced blend of two Polyelectrolyte Enhanced Biopolymer (PEB) that are derived from very stable, organic compounds found in brown and oxidized black coal. Our proprietary processing technology purifies and unleashes the vast potential of these massive molecular formulas.

PEB is a highly reactive long-chain molecule providing a purified carbon source available with various concentrations of fulvic acids, highly reactive functional groups, high CEC potential, and low ash and ballast. SA-1000 contains a combination of negatively charged molecules for reactions with positively charged Na and a new generation of non-ionic molecules for negatively charged chlorides. This unique combination with the addition of calcium creates a complete remediation tool for salts, chlorides, and metals. PEB is an all-natural, highly soluble, liquid concentrate that is safe and easy to use for both soil and aqueous application

PEB naturally binds, adsorbs, and coordinates sodium cations and chlorine anions which allow excessive amounts of salts/chlorides to become more mobile in terms of sodium cations and chloride anions, which eliminates the salt’s/chlorides ability to bind to soil particles, especially clay. This reaction allows sodium/chlorides to be safely leached and naturally filtered through the soil profile. Any sodium/chloride residue creates a new mineral formation resulting in sodium, chloride, cation and anion conversion into physically and mechanically bound status, thus eliminating salt toxicity resulting in desalination and salt toxicity reduction/elimination. This process also improves the growing profile by reversing negative osmotic pressure, reducing electrical conductivity, increasing soluble organic matter allowing proper nutrient and moisture retention, percolation, and uptake, therefore allowing new plants to establish and regenerate soil back to a healthy and productive state. In aqueous solutions, the reactions are similar, resulting in the precipitation of most of the sodium, chlorides, and metals with the remaining soluble forms being neutralized into non-toxic forms.

SA-1000 possesses several beneficial characteristics that buffers the treatment environment, creates a foundation for maximum biological, geological and chemical reactions, is both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and is designed to work effectively in both soil and aqueous environments. Through these various reactions with contaminants, SA-1000 attracts various contaminants, reverses their negative impact in their environment and reduces/or eliminates the harmful impact through the following processes:

  • SA-1000 adsorbs and coordinates sodium cations and chlorine anions which allow excessive amounts of salt to become more mobile in terms of sodium cations and chloride anions that have a natural ability to safely filter through the soil or precipitate out of water. Any sodium residue creates a new mineral formation resulting in sodium, chlorine, cation and anion conversion into physically and mechanically bound status, thus eliminating salt toxicity resulting in desalination and salt toxicity reduction/ elimination.
  • SA-1000 with bio-available calcium is immediately soluble and active compared to gypsum applications. See results within a couple of weeks.
  • In soil, SA-1000 creates fresh soil organic matter that results in increased CEC, reduced Electrical Conductivity (EC), better water holding capacity through osmotic pressure reduction, and soil porosity/structure that results in healthy, active soil for re-use.
  • SA-1000 will naturally stimulate toxic organic and mineral pollutants decomposition into neutral soil mineral compounds such as converting Chromium VI to Chromium III which is accomplished by an abundance of hydroxyl and phenol groups. These functional groups are key to the metal complexation resulting in the binding of various metals which protects the environment.

When frack/production water or drilling muds are accidentally released onto healthy soils, the results on vegetation are immediate, with devastating results. The impact of the sodium increases compaction through interactions with clay particles, reduces the ability for moisture to naturally penetrate the soils, dramatically increases Electrical Conductivity (EC), and limits natural nutrient conversion and availability to plants resulting in certain death.

Treatment of soils with SA-1000 creates fresh soil organic matter that results in healthy, active soil for re-use. SA-1000 will increase CEC while reducing electrical conductivity, improve water holding capacity by reducing the osmotic pressure, and soil porosity/structure by releasing the sodium for the clay and reversing the charge of the clay particles forcing them apart. SA-1000 helps safely regenerate soil affected by salts/chlorides/metals and promotes improved soil structure for healthy, productive use of the site.

In most of our project sites, the application of SA-1000 resulted in a reduction in excess of 75% of Total Soluble Salts and over 80% reduction in chlorides within 30 days after application. While results may vary from one project site to the next, it is important to evaluate results after a minimum of six months. At such time SA1000 full impact would be realized in terms of improving the soil structure.

In most cases, the speed in which the product will work is impacted by a variety of variables. The most important factor is accurate soil analysis the clearly defines the level of contamination and soil structure/type. This information will ensure proper application dosage of the treatment for the desired results. Other critical factors include soil moisture after application (Limited or no rainfall will slow analytical results), proper dosing rate and application, and the establishment of accurate expectations. A reasonable expectation is to see significant results in 30 days if the recommended dosage is used.

Yes, the impact of SA-1000 is almost immediate in terms of detoxifying and buffering the soil structure. If desired, you may apply seed & required nutrients to the treated soil immediately after the application of SA1000. With the proper moisture level & rain fall, germination may be seen in as little as 2 weeks